In these days of national holidays, it is worth reviewing our history books to commemorate how the fight, which we celebrate every September 16, was carried out. If you do not remember the most important moments, here we share a brief summary.
Step by step, we take you from the moment it began, on September 16, 1810, and ended, on September 28, 1821.
Context of New Spain in 1808
First, we must go back to 1808. Although there are still two years to go before the fight that would begin with the Grito de Dolores, we must understand the context.
In that year the North American and French revolutions began to become known.
The idea of liberal states reached the colonies, which implied a rejection of monarchies and the search for sovereignty for the peoples.
The population of New Spain, made up mostly of the indigenous population (60 percent) and castas (22 percent), began to feel discontent towards the crown.
In addition, in May of that year the King of Spain Fernando VII abdicated the crown in favor of Carlos IV, who in turn resigned in favor of Napoleon.
This generated general discontent and a series of uprisings.
There was even a coup attempt by merchants after this announcement. This began to germinate the idea of conspiracies.
In the house of Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, literary gatherings were held, attended by Miguel Allende and Juan Aldama, as well as some priests such as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. There they planned a conspiracy for December, during the San Juan de los Lagos fair.
September 13: Ignacio Garrido denounces the conspiracy plan in Querétaro.
- September 14: Josefa Ortiz de Domíngues warns that they were discovered.
- September 15: That night, Ignacio Allende intercepts the arrest warrant and goes to Dolores, where Miguel Hidalgo decides to take up arms.
- September 16: The priest Miguel Hidalgo calls for a mass in the early morning, given that it was Sunday. Instead of offering Sunday service, he invites people to join the fight against bad government. There the fight for independence began to take shape.
- September 21: Hidalgo is named generalissimo; Allende, lieutenant general; and Juan Aldama, marshal.
- September 23: Viceroy Venegas arms an army against Hidalgo’s movement. He calls it the royalist army.
- October: The insurgent movement had already taken Guanajuato, Aguascalientes, Valladolid and Guadalajara. It looked like they might succeed.
- January to March: Clashes take place between the Spanish army and the insurgent movement. The latter are defeated in several confrontations, so the leaders flee north. For his part, José María Morelos continues fighting in the south.
- March 21: Miguel Hidalgo and Ignacio Allende are captured by Ignacio Elizondo in Las Norias. They go to an ecclesiastical trial.
- May 26: Vicente Guerrero joins the fight. Spoiler: it will be one of the few that survive until the end of this story.
- June 26: Ignacio Allende, Ignacio Aldama, among others, are shot in Chihuahua.
- July 30: Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is shot and beheaded in Chihuahua.
- October 14: The heads of Hidalgo, Allende and Adama are shown in Guanajuato so that the remaining insurgents would surrender. It didn’t work for them.
In the absence of a legitimate king, the Spanish Cortes enacted a Constitution establishing a Spanish constitutional monarchy.
With this it was a matter of maintaining order and helping to carry out a counterrevolution; however, citizens did not get the autonomy they wanted.
For his part, José María Morelos continues his fight in the south, in which he was doing more or less well.
The insurgents continued fighting despite having little army and few resources. With the help of Guadalupe Victoria and Vicente Guerrero, they took over Chilpancingo, Tixtla, Chilapa, Taxco, Cuatla, among others.
- September 14: José María Morelos y Pavón establishes a congress to exercise sovereignty. There he reads “Sentiments to the Nation”, where he declares a free America and is named Servant of the Nation.
- October 22: The constitution drafted by Congress is promulgated.
- February 18: The Supreme Congress removes Morelos from power and is forced to continue his fight separately.
- May 5: Ferdinand VII returns to the crown, dissolves the Cortes and annuls the Constitution of 1812, which sought a constitutional monarchy.
- July 14: Morelos writes to the president of the United States, James Madison, to recognize the independence of New Spain.
- September 1: But this one rather prohibits purchases to help the insurgent movement in New Spain.
- November 5: Morelos is taken prisoner and faces trial.
- December 22: Morelos is shot in San Cristóbal Ecatepec.
- January – October: The insurgent movement continues, although weakened. He does not obtain any victory but he resists.
- November 16: Vicente Guerrero defeats the royalist army on the Piaxtla hill.
- January – July: The insurgent movement rises with the support of General Francisco Xavier Mina and Servando Teresa de Mier.
- August 14: Teresa de Mier is captured.
- October 27: Mina is captured and taken prisoner.
- November 11: Mina is shot on Cerro Bellaco.
- From January to December: Let’s remember that Guadalupe Victoria is still alive. The fight for independence continues in the southeast of what is still New Spain.
- November 5: Vicente Guerrero is defeated at Agua Zarca. Fortunately, he is not captured.
- December: Vicente Guerrero continues to fight. The insurgent battle in the south continues.
- March 8: Given the continuation of the war and the economic crisis in Spain, King Ferdinand VII swears the Constitution of 1812 that he had annulled.
- June 18: Parish elections are held in constitutional New Spain.
- October: Commander Agutín de Iturbide, who had fought from the beginning against the insurgent movement, makes a turn of the screw and begins a plan to seek the independence of New Spain.
- November 16: Iturbide goes out to fight against Vicente Guerrero, whom he likes as an obstacle.
- January 10: Iturbide writes to Vicente Guerrero to invite him to surrender and offer him a pardon, since both seek independence.
- January 20: Guerrero says no, but shows interest in achieving independence together.
- February 10: Iturbide and Guerrero meet in Acatempan and make peace. It is known as the Acatepan Hug.
- February 24: Plan de Iguala is signed, to declare New Spain as an independent country.
As the months passed, several regions adhered to the Iguala Plan and Iturbide created the Triguarante Army to achieve independence. Everything is looking good now. Spain and its viceroyalty in America are in crisis and do not have the resources or forces to continue the fight.
- September 21: The Triguarante Army leaves for Mexico City.
September 23: The royalist forces flee towards Veracruz.
September 27: Triguarante Army enters Mexico City! Mexican independence is consummated!