Genocides and crimes against humanity: the United States report on the regimes of China, Russia and Iran

The lifeless body of a man with his hands tied behind his back lies on the ground in Bucha, Ukraine (AP Photo/Vadim Ghirda, File) (VADIM GHIRDA/)

The Government of the United States published this Monday various country reports on human rights practices in the year 2022. Among others, it puts the magnifying glass on the regimes of China (includes Hong Kong, Macao and Tibet), Russia and Iran.

The reports, carried out by the Office of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor of the Joe Biden government, give an account of the serious human rights abuses committed by the authorities of the respective countries, which include genocide, summary executions, torture and homicides, in an almost infinite list of atrocities.


FILE PHOTO: Activists take part in a protest against China's treatment of the ethnic Uyghur people (REUTERS/Willy Kurniawan/File Photo)
FILE PHOTO: Activists participate in a protest against China’s treatment of the Uyghur ethnic people (REUTERS/Willy Kurniawan/File Photo) (WILLY KURNIAWAN/)

“The People’s Republic of China is an authoritarian state”says the report, which highlights that Xi Jinping continued to occupy the three most powerful positions in 2022: party secretary general, state president and chairman of the Central Military Commission.

The People’s Liberation Army is primarily responsible for external security, but also has some internal security responsibilities. “Civilian authorities maintained effective control of the security forces. There were reports that members of the security forces committed serious and widespread abuses”.

“During the year there were genocide and crimes against humanity against predominantly Muslim Uyghurs and members of other ethnic and religious minority groups in Xinjiang,” the United States denounced in the report. “These crimes continued and included: the arbitrary imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty of more than a million civilians; forced sterilization, coerced abortions, and more restrictive enforcement of the country’s birth control policies; rape and other forms of sexual and gender-based violence; torture of a large number of arbitrarily detained; and persecution, including forced labor and draconian restrictions on freedom of religion or belief, freedom of expression, and freedom of movement.”

The enumeration of credible reports of volations against human rights mentioned in the report are numerous. “Arbitrary or illegal killings by the government; government enforced disappearances; torture by the government; harsh and life-threatening prison and detention conditions; arbitrary arrest and detention by the government; repression transnational against individuals in other countries; the lack of an independent judiciary and Communist Party control over the judicial and legal system; arbitrary interference with privacy, including pervasive and intrusive surveillance and technical monitoring, including the use of COVID-19 tracking applications for purposes unrelated to public health; punishment of family members for crimes allegedly committed by an individual; serious restrictions on freedom of expression and the media, including physical attacks and criminal prosecution of journalists, lawyers, writers, bloggers, dissidents, petitioners and others; serious restrictions on Internet freedom, including the blocking of sites”, among many others.

The report alleges that Chinese regime officials and security services often committed human rights abuses with impunity: “Authorities often announced investigations after reported cases of police killings, but did not announce the results or findings of police wrongdoing or disciplinary action. Enforcement of corruption laws was inconsistent and not transparent, and corruption was widespread.”


yearbook war ukraine russia
A terrifying picture after the Russian army abandoned the city of Bucha and Ukraine retook control: civilians tortured and killed in their homes and on the street

“The Russian Federation has a highly centralized authoritarian political system dominated by President Vladimir Putin,” reads the report, which also mentions that in this country there were reports that members of the Russian security forces committed numerous human rights abuses.

Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, and the Russian armed forces committed numerous war crimes and other atrocities and abuses, it warns. “There were credible reports of summary executions, torture, rape, indiscriminate attacks and deliberately targeted attacks against civilians and civilian infrastructure by Russian forces in Ukraine, all of which constitute war crimes. The Russian government was involved in the forced deportation of civilians from Ukraine to Russia, often after a harsh and abusive “leak” process, and there were numerous reports of forced deportations and adoptions of children from Ukraine.”

Apart from the human rights abuses committed by Russia in connection with its invasion of Ukraine, “significant human rights issues included credible reports of: extrajudicial executionsincluding from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex people in Chechnya by local government authorities; forced disappearences by or on behalf of government authorities; widespread torture by government law enforcement officers sometimes resulting in death and occasionally involving sexual violence or punitive psychiatric incarceration; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary arrest and detention; political and religious prisoners and detainees; transnational repression against people located outside the country; gross arbitrary interference with privacy; support an armed group that recruited or used child soldiers; Severe crackdown on freedom of expression and the media, including violence against journalists and the use of “anti-extremist” and other laws to prosecute peaceful dissent and members of minority religious groups,” among others.

For the United States, the Putin regime “failed to take adequate measures to identify, investigate, prosecute or punish most of the officials who committed abuses and became involved in acts of corruption, which generated a climate of impunity”.


A protester holds a portrait of Mahsa Amini during a demonstration in support of the young Iranian who died after being arrested in Tehran by the morality police (Photo by Ozan KOSE / AFP) (OZAN KOSE /)

Iran is an authoritarian theocratic republic with a Shia Islamic political system based on velayat-e faqih (legal guardianship). He Supreme leader He is the head of state and has constitutional authority over the judiciary, the regime-run media, and other key institutions. the ayatollah Ali Khamenei He has held the position since 1989, the report describes.

“The Supreme Leader has the ultimate authority over all security agencies. There were reports that members of the security forces committed numerous abuses throughout the year,” denounces the United States report.

Iran has experienced widespread unrest over the past year. Multiple protests across the country began after the death on September 16 of Mahsa Amini in moral police custody after he allegedly violated mandatory veiling laws and security forces used deadly force against protesters. . Women and young people led the protests, chanting “Women, Life, Liberty” and “Death to the Dictator.” At the end of the year, security forces killed more than 500 people, including at least 69 children, and arrested more than 19,000 protesters, including children, according to the non-governmental organization Human Rights Activists News Agency. Some of those detained faced the death penalty, including children.

“Significant human rights issues included credible reports of: unlawful or arbitrary killings by the government and its agents, most commonly executions for crimes that do not meet the international legal standard of ‘the most serious crimes’ or for crimes committed by juvenile offenders, as well as after trials without guarantees of a fair trial; enforced disappearance attributed to the government and its agents; torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment by the government and its agents; arbitrary arrest or detention; child, early and forced marriage, female genital mutilation/cutting, feminicide and other forms of violence; violence against ethnic minorities, including Kurdish and Baluch minorities; crimes, violence or threats of violence motivated by anti-Semitism; human trafficking; crimes involving violence or threats of violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex persons,” among other crimes committed by the Iranian regime, which “took little action to identify, investigate, prosecute, and punish officials who committed human rights abuses, including the deaths of protesters and abuses in custody or corruption. Impunity remained widespread at all levels.”

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