Hydrocystomas are benign lesions, usually asymptomatic, that cause aesthetic discomfort. However, they need to be studied.

Hydrocystoma is a benign cyst that originates from the sweat glands. It can be eccrine or apocrine, solitary or with multiple presentations.

Hydrocystomas contain fluid from the sweat glands trapped inside, without communication with the skin, so that there is no emptying and they can increase in size as there is more fluid.

They appear on the skin, predominantly on the edge of the eyelids (especially the lower eyelid), the cheeks, and the nape of the neck.

What is its cause?

Hydrocystoma is caused by obstruction of eccrine sweat gland ducts or by regrowth of apocrine sweat glands. Its exact cause is unknown.

They are associated with hot and humid climates, in which more sweat production is required, which could clog the ducts. It also appears more in patients with hyperhidrosis, a condition characterized by excessive sweating.

Regarding hormonal causes, there is an association with Graves’ disease. In it, there is hyperstimulation of the sweat glands due to the increase in thyroid hormones.

Hydrocystoma is asymptomatic

The reason for consultation is due to the presence of a cystic nodule that causes aesthetic discomfort. Clinically, hydrocystomas appear as dome-shaped protrusions, usually translucent but also pink, bluish, or brown in color.

Its surface is smooth and the liquid content is transparent. They can be solitary or multiple.

These can measure between 1 to 16 millimeters and grow or multiply with heat and humidity.
When they are distributed along the eyelid margins, they appear lighter in color.

They are more frequent in women and after the fourth decade of life. Hydrocystomas rarely occur in childhood and adolescence.