Intense headache, blurred vision, and confusion are warning signs of intracranial hypotension.
Intracranial hypotension classically manifests as a severe headache that spreads throughout the skull.
It usually worsens when standing and improves or subsides when lying down, which is why it is called orthostatic headache. Other symptoms associated with this condition are the following:
Vomiting and nausea, neck pain and stiffness, ringing in the ears, double or blurred vision, hearing disturbances, sensitivity to light and sound, dizziness and confusion, impaired motor skills and balance.
On the other hand, there are cases of intracranial hypotension associated with fistulas that present with CSF leakage through the nose or rhinorrhea.
Similarly, there may be fluid leakage through a surgical wound due to a rupture of the meninges.
Research suggests that the triggering phenomenon of intracranial hypotension is the loss and reduction in CSF concentration at the brain level.
This decrease appears as a result of its leakage through the meningeal layers of the brain.
The three layers of membranes collectively called the meninges are the dura mater, the subarachnoid layer, and the pia mater, from the outside in.
The dura mater is responsible for surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
Lesions at this level are the most common reason for intracranial hypotension.